Tea World

Lesson 28

19th Century

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1815-1831 - Samples of indigenous Indian tea plants are sent to an East India Company Botanist who is slowly convinced that they are bonafide tea plants.

1800- Tea gardens become popular haunts for fashionable Londoners

1802- Reported failure of a concurrent attempt to grow tea in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

1810-Chinese from Amoy introduces tea cultivation in Formossa (Taiwan).

1815- (i) Col.Latter calls attention to a wild tea used by aboriginal tribe-men in Upper Assam. (ii)Dr. Govan recommends tea cultivation in North-eastern part of Bengal (Assam).

1818- The Temperance Movement is founded as a result of rampant alcoholism brought on by the Industrial Revolution. Members seek salvation for the drunken men with "tea and god on their side". This movement eventually inspired the word "teetotaling".

1823 -Major Robert Bruce, a British Army Major discovers indigenous tea in Assam.    

1826 – (i)Tea seeds obtained by Dr. Von Siebold from Japan planted in Java (Indonesia). (ii)English Quaker John Horniman introduces the first retail tea in sealed, lead-lined packages (first packaged tea).

1827-The first Chinese tea seeds are planted in Java by an entrepreneurial Dutchman (J.I.L.L. Jacobsen), who smuggled both the seeds and teamen out of China. The Chinese plant did not thrive however, and was later supplanted by the hardier Assam variety.

1830 –(i)The first Tea Factory in Java, a small one, is built at Wanajasa (ii)Congress reduces U.S. duties on coffee and tea and other imports.

1832- Tea is planted experimentally in Nilgiri Hills of South India by Dr.Christic.

1833 - By an act of the British Prime Minister Charles Grey, the East India Company loses its   monopoly in the trade with China, mostly in tea.

1834- The "Tea Committee", appointed by the Governor-General Lord William Cavendish Bentinck, reports that tea can be successfully grown in India.The Indian Tea Committee sends its secretary,George James Gordan to China for tea seeds, Chinese workmen and information on the cultivation and manufacture of tea. Experiments with tea planting are conducted in the Darjeeling region of India.

1835 – (i)The East India Company starts the first tea plantations in Assam, India. (ii)The first consignment of Java tea reaches the Amsterdam market.

1835-36-The Scientific Commission in India recommends the introduction of Chinese tea plants in Upper Assam. C.A.Bruce is appointed Superintendent of tea culture in Assam.

1836-In addition to experimental plantings of China tea, C.A.Bruce raises a nursery of indigenous Assam tea at Sadiya.

1837 - The first American consul at Canton, Major Samuel Shaw, trades cargo for tea and silk, earning investors a great return on their capital and encouraging more Americans to trade with China.

1838 –The first export shipment of eight chests of Assam tea is sent to London. The first tea from Indian soil and imported Chinese tea plants is sold. A small amount is sent to England and quickly purchased due to its uniqueness.

1839-The Assam indigenous tea seeds sent to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) from Calcutta.

1840’s and 1850’s - The first tea plants, imports from China and India, are cultivated on a trial basis in Sri Lanka (Ceylon).

1840 (i) The Assam Company takes over two third of the government tea garden in North Eastern India. (ii)American clipper ships speed up tea transports to America and Europe. (iv)Anna the 7th Duchess of Bedford invents "Afternoon Tea" to abolish the "sinking feeling" she experienced during the long gap between breakfast and dinner.It becomes a lasting English ritual.

1842-Tea cultivation starts in Dehradun, British India.

1843-1844-Maniram Dewan, the first Assamese.Establishes a tea garden at Cinnamora.

1844-Tea cultivation is begun experimentally in the island of Mauritius

1847-Tea is introduced in Russian Transcaucasia (Georgia)

1849 – (i) Parliament ends the Britain's Navigation Acts, and U.S. clipper ships are allowed to transport tea from China to British ports. (ii) Tea wholesaler Henry Charles Harrod takes over a London grocery store and grows it into one of the world's largest department stores.

1850 – (i)Tea is planted  experimentally at the Durban Botanical Garden, Natal, South Africa.(ii)An attempt is made to grow tea in Australlia (iii) Londoners get their first peak at a U.S. clipper ship when one arrives from Hong Kong full of China tea. (iv) U.S. clipper ships soon desert China trade for the more profitable work of taking gold seekers to California.

1851-The first privately owned tea garden in Assam is opened by Col.Hannay.

1854- (i)The Planters’ Association of Ceylon is organized.(ii) The British introduce tea to Morocco.

1855-Commercial tea growing shows promise in Formosa (Taiwan)

1856 -Tea is planted in   Darjeeling and Cachar, British India.

1857-The first tea garden is opened in Sylhet (now in Bangaldesh)

1859 - Local New York merchant George Huntington Hartford and his employer George P. Gilman give the A&P retail chain its start as the Great American Tea Company Store. Hartford and Gilman buy whole clipper shipments from the New York harbor and sell the tea three times cheaper than other merchants.

1861- (i) Calcutta Tea Auction Centre is opened on December 27 (ii)First Russian Brick tea factory is built at Hankow.

1862-First tea garden in Terai (India) is established.

1866 - Over ninety percent of Britain's tea is still imported from China.

1867- Under the supervision of Scotsman James Taylor, manager of a coffee plantation in Ceylon(Sri Lanka), 20 acre of land near Kandy is cleared and planted with   both the China and India tea seeds. The Assam seed flourishes and becomes the first commercial tea from Ceylon(Sri Lanka).

1868-(i) Tea cultivation begins in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan (ii) One acre of land is planted with tea experimentally at the Govt. station in the island of Jamaica.

1869 – (i) The Suez Canal opens and the trip to China was shortened, making steamships more economical. (ii) In a marketing effort to capitalize on the transcontinental rail link fervor, the Great American Tea Company is renamed the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company. (iii) A plant fungus ruins the coffee crop in Ceylon(Sri Lanka) and spreads throughout the Orient and Pacific, giving a hefty boost to tea drinking.

1870 – (i) Mr.A. Holle, at Parakan Salak, in Java (Indonesia) is the first man to roll tea mechanically (ii) Twinings of England begins to blend tea for uniformity.

1872 – (i)William Jackson,pioneer inventor of tea machinery in India sets up his first mechanical tea roller at Jorhat,Assam (ii)The Adulteration of Food, Drink, and Drugs Act deems the sale of adulterated drugs or other unlabeled mixtures with foreign additives that increase weight as punishable offenses.

1873-The first export shipment of Ceylon(Sri Lanka) tea is sent to London.

1874-Lt.Col.Edward Money, British India invents a tea drier.

1874-75-Tea planting starts in Dooars, British India

1875 - A new British Sale of Food and Drugs Law calls adulteration hazardous to personal health and increases its legal consequences to a heavy fine or imprisonment.

1876 –(i)Thomas Johnstone Lipton opens his first shop in Glasgow, using American merchandising methods that he learned while working in the grocery section of a New York department store(ii)The administrator of Tjisalak installs the first Jackson tea roller in Java.

1877- (i) Commercial tea planting is begun in Natal, South Africa.(ii)Samuel C.Davidson invents his first “Sirocco”tea drier.

1878- (i)The Assam tea seed is planted in Java. It thrives over the earlier planted China variety (ii) Tea is planted in Malawi, and becomes the first to be cultivated in Africa.

1879- The No.1 Updraft “Sirocco” tea drier in introduced in the market.

1880- (i)The first tea rolling machine manufactured in Ceylon is put out by John Walker & Co. (ii) Scottish grocer Thomas Lipton buys numerous tea plantations in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and goes on to revolutionize tea production in Ceylon.

1881-The Indian Tea Association is formed in Calcutta (Kolkata).

1882- (i) The first tea-drying machine in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) is installed in Windsor Forest Plantation (ii) A shop for sale of Indian and Ceylon teas is opened in Paris.

1882-1883- William Cameron improves the system of pruning tea bushes in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

1883-The first Colombo Tea Auction is held on July 16 in the office of Somerville & Co.

1884- William Jackson produces his first mechanical tea drier.

1887-The planting of tea starts in Nysaland(Malawi).

1888-William Jackson brings out his first tea sorting machine.

1890 – (i)Thomas Lipton buys tea estates in Ceylon, in order to sell tea at a reasonable price at his growing chain of 300 grocery stores (ii)Assam tea seeds are planted in Minas Geraces, Brazil.

1891- (i)The manufacture of Tablet Tea in Kiukiang (China) is begun.(ii)Research on tea starts in an organized way in Assam by Mr.M.Kelway Bamber.

1893-The Japan Central Tea Association opens a large Tea Pavillion at the Chicago World’s Fair.

1894-The Indian Tea District Association of London(formed in 1879) merges with the Indian Tea Association of Calcutta and its name is changed to the Indian Tea Association (London).

1896-The first individual tea-bag patent is issued to A.V.Smith of London.

1898- (i) Gensaku Harasaki invents a mechanical refiring pan for Japanese Green tea.  

Late 1800’s – (i) Assam tea plants take over imported Chinese plants in India and its tea market booms. (ii) Ceylon’s (Sri Lanka) successful coffee market turns into a successful tea market.

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